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Bench Mark Sheet for 9087068, Kewaunee, Lake Michigan WI

Superseded Epoch

Large map location marker Station Location
Small red map location marker Published bench mark
Small blue map location marker Unpublished bench mark

Bench mark positions only appear on the map if their coordinates in the CO-OPS database are at the precision of degrees/minutes/seconds/and tenths of seconds. If the coordinates are less precise, the mark will not appear.

Printable version

                          U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE
                National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
                            National Ocean Service
Datums Page                                                        Page  1 of  6

                                                                                
Station ID: 9087068                         PUBLICATION DATE:  08/11/2017
Name:       KEWAUNEE, LAKE MICHIGAN                           
            WI
NOAA Chart: 14903                           Latitude:   44° 27.8' N (  44.46397)
USGS Quad:                                  Longitude:  87° 30.1' W ( -87.50103)


TO REACH THE NOS GAUGE HOUSE, IN KEWAUNEE, KEWAUNEE COUNTY, WISCONSIN, FROM THE
INTERSECTION OF ELLIS ST AND MILWAUKEE ST, PROCEED NORTH ON MILWAUKEE ST FOR
0.80 KM (0.50 MI) TO THE INTERSECTION WITH MAIN ST, THEN PROCEED SOUTH ON MAIN
ST FOR APPROX 0.16 KM (0.10 MI) TO THE CORPS OF ENGINEER PROPERTY ON THE EAST
SIDE OF MAIN ST, NOS GAUGE IS LOCATED ON THE NORTH SIDE OF THE BUILDING ON THE
BULKHEAD.


                    G R E A T  L A K E S   B E N C H   M A R K S


                 PRIMARY BENCH MARK STAMPING:   
                         DESIGNATION:          908 7068 ROD

MONUMENTATION:           Metal Rod                             VM#:        13214
AGENCY:                                                        IDB PID#:  PM0373
SETTING CLASSIFICATION:  Horizontal rod in concrete wall       OPUS PID:        
LATITUDE:   44° 27.8' N (  44.46361)          LONGITUDE:  87° 30.0' W ( -87.50058)


The bench mark is a metal rod on the W side of a 60- x 120-foot shop building,
15.3m (50.2 ft) from the N edge of the building, 2.41m (7.91 ft) from the S edge
of the building, 2.4m (7.9 ft) from the back edge of the curb that surrounds the
W end of the building, being the highest point of a 3/4-inch rod protruding
6.1cm from the building and 13.11cm below the tin on the building, 24.4cm above
the ground.

                          U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE
                National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
                            National Ocean Service
                                                                   Page  2 of  6

                                                                                
Station ID: 9087068                         PUBLICATION DATE:  08/11/2017
Name:       KEWAUNEE, LAKE MICHIGAN                           
            WI
NOAA Chart: 14903                           Latitude:   44° 27.8' N (  44.46397)
USGS Quad:                                  Longitude:  87° 30.1' W ( -87.50103)


                    G R E A T  L A K E S   B E N C H   M A R K S


                         BENCH MARK STAMPING:   
                         DESIGNATION:          908 7068 GAGE

MONUMENTATION:           Chiseled Square                       VM#:        13215
AGENCY:                                                        IDB PID#:  PM0371
SETTING CLASSIFICATION:  Dock wall                             OPUS PID:        
LATITUDE:   44° 27.8' N (  44.46361)          LONGITUDE:  87° 30.0' W ( -87.49994)


The bench mark is a chiseled square on the E-W dock wall at the N end of the
main N-S dock, on top of the NW corner of the old dock wall, 21.2 m (69.6 ft) W
of mooring post, 17.7 m (58.1 ft) E of NE corner of WHSE "A", 2.0 m (6.6 ft) S
of inside corner of steel bulkhead intersection, being the highest point in a
2-inch square formed by two lines cut in the concrete and edges of the wall,
flush with the ground.



                         BENCH MARK STAMPING:   
                         DESIGNATION:          908 7068 PLATFORM

MONUMENTATION:           Survey disk                           VM#:        13216
AGENCY:                  Army Corps of Engineers               IDB PID#:  PM0374
SETTING CLASSIFICATION:  Concrete landing platform             OPUS PID:        
LATITUDE:   44° 27.8' N (  44.46308)          LONGITUDE:  87° 30.0' W ( -87.49975)


The bench mark is a disk on a concrete landing platform 32- x 104-foot long,
12.6m (41.3 ft) NE of a bollard, 4.0m (13.1 ft) S of the N edge of the concrete
platform, 3.5m (11.5 ft) SE of a bollard, 0.9 meters (3.0 ft) W of the W edge of
a steel cap.

                          U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE
                National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
                            National Ocean Service
                                                                   Page  3 of  6

                                                                                
Station ID: 9087068                         PUBLICATION DATE:  08/11/2017
Name:       KEWAUNEE, LAKE MICHIGAN                           
            WI
NOAA Chart: 14903                           Latitude:   44° 27.8' N (  44.46397)
USGS Quad:                                  Longitude:  87° 30.1' W ( -87.50103)


                    G R E A T  L A K E S   B E N C H   M A R K S


                         BENCH MARK STAMPING:  7068 F  1989
                         DESIGNATION:          908 7068 F

MONUMENTATION:           Survey disk                           VM#:        13217
AGENCY:                  National Ocean Service                IDB PID#:  AC8306
SETTING CLASSIFICATION:  Small bridge abutment                 OPUS PID:        
LATITUDE:   44° 27.8' N (  44.46322)          LONGITUDE:  87° 30.1' W ( -87.50158)


The bench mark is a disk 30.5 m (100.1 ft) SW of entrance to the Kewaunee Corps
of Engineers field office, on the NW corner of the old bridge abutment cap, 15.5
m (50.9 ft) W of old State Highway 42, 0.3 m (1.0 ft) N of old bridge handrail,
0.2 m (0.7 ft) E of W face of abutment cap, set flush in end cap 0.3 m (1.0 ft)
above ground.



                         BENCH MARK STAMPING:  7068 G 1991
                         DESIGNATION:          908 7068 G

MONUMENTATION:           Bench Mark disk                       VM#:        13218
AGENCY:                  National Ocean Service                IDB PID#:  AC8307
SETTING CLASSIFICATION:  Stainless steel rod                   OPUS PID:        
LATITUDE:   44° 27.8' N (  44.46317)          LONGITUDE:  87° 30.0' W ( -87.50069)


The bench mark is a disk 37.3m (122.4 ft) SE of the center of the main gate to
the COE property and in a grassy area, 15.1m (49.5 ft) E of the W corner of
6-foot chain link fence, 12.6m (41.3 ft) SE of 10-inch tree in grass yard, 6.3m
(20.7 ft) SSW of S corner of steel garage building no.  515, 2.1m (6.9 ft) W of
sidewalk running on the W side of garage, being a standard NOS disc crimped to a
stainless steel rod driven 12.2 meters (40.0 ft) to refusal, 25.2 cm below the
ground, protected by a kick block with 5-inch PVC pipe flush with the ground.

                          U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE
                National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
                            National Ocean Service
                                                                   Page  4 of  6

                                                                                
Station ID: 9087068                         PUBLICATION DATE:  08/11/2017
Name:       KEWAUNEE, LAKE MICHIGAN                           
            WI
NOAA Chart: 14903                           Latitude:   44° 27.8' N (  44.46397)
USGS Quad:                                  Longitude:  87° 30.1' W ( -87.50103)


                    G R E A T  L A K E S   B E N C H   M A R K S


                         BENCH MARK STAMPING:  TOWER 78
                         DESIGNATION:          TOWER

MONUMENTATION:           Bench Mark disk                       VM#:        13219
AGENCY:                  Army Corps of Engineers               IDB PID#:  AC8308
SETTING CLASSIFICATION:  Tower platform                        OPUS PID:        
LATITUDE:   44° 27.8' N (  44.46383)          LONGITUDE:  87° 30.1' W ( -87.50097)


The bench mark is a disk 4.36m (14.30 ft) N of Corps of Engineers main office,
3.33m (10.93 ft) E of wooden walkway leading to office door, 2.02m (6.63 ft) S
of the edge of the concrete foundation, located in the center of tower platform
and set flush into concrete.



                         BENCH MARK STAMPING:  7068 H 1997
                         DESIGNATION:          908 7068 H

MONUMENTATION:           Metal Rod                             VM#:        18331
AGENCY:                  National Geodetic Survey              IDB PID#:  AH5304
SETTING CLASSIFICATION:  Stainless steel rod in sleeve         OPUS PID:        
LATITUDE:   44° 27.8' N (  44.46372)          LONGITUDE:  87° 30.1' W ( -87.50242)


The bench mark is a stainless steel rod 61.6 m (202.1 ft) ESE of the Kewaunee
Bridge, 22.0 m (72.2 ft) N NE of the S face of the dock, 3.9 m (12.8 ft) W of
the center of a concrete walkway leading to the docks, 2.4 m (7.9 ft) S of the S
edge of the parking lot for the marina, a flange encased rod driven 14.6 m (47.9
ft) and encased in a 5-inch NGS logo cap flush with the ground.





Foot Notes:

Above marks are published for informational purposes only.  Long term stability
has not been reviewed prior to publication.

                          U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE
                National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
                            National Ocean Service
                                                                   Page  5 of  6

                                                                                
Station ID: 9087068                         PUBLICATION DATE:  08/11/2017
Name:       KEWAUNEE, LAKE MICHIGAN                           
            WI
NOAA Chart: 14903                           Latitude:   44° 27.8' N (  44.46397)
USGS Quad:                                  Longitude:  87° 30.1' W ( -87.50103)


                             D E F I N I T I O N S


The International Great Lakes Datum (IGLD) is the vertical height reference
datum used in the Great Lakes/St. Lawrence River System for engineering,
charting, channel dredging, navigation safety, power generation, and water 
resource management. It is a coordinated datum between the United States and
Canada that ensures both countries are using the same reference for projects
in the Great Lakes basin. The datum origin, or zero, is defined as Mean Sea 
Level at Pointe-au-Pere /Rimouski, Quebec, Canada at the mouth of the 
St. Lawrence River. IGLD requires updating approximately every 25-30 years 
to account for varying changes in the land surface elevations following the 
retreat of the glaciers during the last ice age, referred to as Glacial 
Isostatic Adjustment (GIA). The current IGLD 1985 was implemented in 1992.

IGLD 1985 uses dynamic heights as the vertical reference standard and lakes
station water level elevations are adjusted to provide a level geopotential
plane for lake level reference.

Dynamic height is the potential difference along the plumbline between the 
vertical datum and a point of interest divided by a constant value of 
gravity. In Canada and USA, the constant value of gravity is the 
"normal gravity" on the ellipsoid at latitude 45 (9.806199 ms-2). Dynamic 
heights have no geometric meaning. They are mainly used for the management 
of water in large lakes, rivers and channels. The surface of a lake has a 
constant dynamic height if undisturbed by currents, winds, atmospheric 
pressure, etc.

The Hydraulic Corrector (HC) is the difference in the long term water level 
mean between Subordinate and Master station. The difference (HC) is 
subtracted algebraically at the subordinate gauge referencing the same 
elevation as the master station. Thus all water levels on a given lake can 
be referenced to the same lakes LWD/Chart Datum reference elevation.

                          U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE
                National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
                            National Ocean Service
                                                                   Page  6 of  6

                                                                                
Station ID: 9087068                         PUBLICATION DATE:  08/11/2017
Name:       KEWAUNEE, LAKE MICHIGAN                           
            WI
NOAA Chart: 14903                           Latitude:   44° 27.8' N (  44.46397)
USGS Quad:                                  Longitude:  87° 30.1' W ( -87.50103)


                             D E F I N I T I O N S


A Master Stations is the control point for determining water level 
elevations on a particular lake of the Great Lakes.   Since water surfaces
of the Great Lakes are considered to be at geopotential equal, all Mean 
Water Level (MWL) values for stations on a particular lake should have the 
same dynamic height.  Therefore, all subordinate water level station MWL 
values are adjusted to match the dynamic water level elevation of the Master
Station through the use of a hydraulic corrector.  In the establishment of 
International Great Lakes Datum (1985) the connecting waterways station 
dynamic elevations were calculated through the use of a linear regression 
while constraining the end points of the regression with the dynamic 
elevations of the corresponding master station above and below the 
connecting channel.

NAVD88 is a fixed datum derived from a simultaneous, least squares, minimum
constraint adjustment of Canadian/Mexican/United States leveling 
observations.  Local mean sea level observed at Father Point/Rimouski,
Canada was held fixed as the single initial constraint.  NAVD88 replaces 
NGVD29 as the national standard geodetic reference for heights.  Bench mark 
elevations relative toNAVD88 are available from NGS through the World Wide 
Web at National Geodetic Survey.

The Vertical Mark Number (VM#) and PID# shown on the bench mark sheet are unique
identifiers for bench marks in the tidal and geodetic databases, respectively.
Each bench mark in either database has a single, unique VM# and/or PID# assigned.
Where both VM# and PID# are indicated, both tidal and geodetic elevations are
available for the bench mark listed. The NGS's Integrated Data Base (IDB PID)
provides geodetic datum based on traditionally leveled and bluebooked ties to
the National Spatial Reference System(NSRS) https://www.ngs.noaa.gov/datasheets/.
The NGS Online Positioning User Service (OPUS PID) provides geodetic datum based
on GPS position & tie it to the NSRS https://www.ngs.noaa.gov/OPUS/.


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Products available at 9087068 Kewaunee, Lake Michigan, WI

Revised: 08/08/2018
NOAA / National Ocean Service
Web site owner: Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services